In this book, Malagaris places Biruni in his historical and cultural context within the long-term history of Central Asia. The Author outlines the trajectory of Biruni's life,clarifying key about his associations, travels, and patrons. Following an overview of Biruni'c chief interests, Malagaris details Biruni's major works to illustrate the breadth of his output and his intellectual approach, especially his attention to language.his esteem for knowledge, and his commitment to objective truth. An account of the institutional context and competition among patrons helps explain some of his friendships and rivalries, notably with Avicenna. Malagaris also shows how varied paths of transmission affected the legacy of Biruni and his reception in global scientific and literary traditions Finally, a detailed bibliographic essay, timeline, and list of key works will guide readers into further study of Biruni and his thought.