This work examines the antiquity of image worship in India. Its main focus is the Bhagavata religion that evolved around Vasudeva Krishna of the Vrishni clan. The earliest literary reference to Vasudeva was by the grammarian Panini (6th century bce), and the earliest surviving epigraphic reference was the Heliodorus pillar inscription (2nd century bce). At Mathura, several noteworthy archaeological finds dated to the early Common Era were recovered from the site of Katra Keshavadeva. In the medieval period, Katra Keshavadeva was subjected to repeated devastation, beginning with that by Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1071 ce. However, within a century a temple dedicated to Vishnu was built at Katra Keshavadeva. Thereafter, the story of destruction followed by construction was repeated over and over again. In the early 17th century, the Keshavadeva temple was rebuilt by Bir Singh Deo Bundela. In 1670, the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb ordered its destruction. An Idgah was built at the site. Later developments at Katra Keshavadeva were recorded in the judicial records of colonial India.